. . . THE SCREAM!
This painting was revolutionary. Munch, a Norwegian, went to Paris and got the spirit of a nascent modernism. He became the father of Expressionism.
Influenced by Nietzsche, early Freud, and a society sopping wet with the thought of Darwin, THE SCREAM was the result: the first major artistic expression of the sheer terror we all experience every morning when we wake up.
Why terror? Why Valium and Xanax and Prozac and wine?
Freud took away certainty of mind and made our live-in devil, the unconscious, our master. Darwin proved that we are elevated and self-important toads and monkeys, thereby killing God. Nietzsche did the burial by telling us, the toads, that we were each gods, even though we did not know our own minds.
It didn’t help that Munch’s sister and mother died before his very eyes when he was a young child. It didn’t help that his father was a religious zealot. It didn’t help that Munch himself was very often seriously ill both mentally and physically.
It is unfortunate that someone obsessed with anxiety and death lived to a ripe old 80. He died in 1944.
A similar artist, the Belgian James Ensor, made it to over 90 years of age, and he lived when Munch did. Ensor was just as obsessed with death as Munch, but there is a sense in his work that he enjoyed the subject rather than dreaded it. Witness:
Skeletons, masks, emaciated and diseased figures, pockmarked faces, distorted features – Ensor painted a carnival of the grotesque. Like “Twin Peaks”, he believed that evil is fully embedded in this life. The grotesque faces us every day. Sometimes that can be humorous.
You have to realize how progressive and out-of-place these paintings by Ensor and Munch were. Not just when they were completed (and I mean completed for the first time, because both Ensor and Munch fiddled with completed works and made many versions of many works), but until well after the men passed into what most intrigued and horrified them.